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Mineral Binders Industrial Application & General Info

During the construction of buildings and facilities stone materials are used: bricks, stones, blocks, panels, facing tiles and many more. But to ensure the building is solid and warm these materials must be linked together into a single monolithic structure.

To do this binders are used. Binders also represent the main component of such artificial stone materials as concrete and mortar, in which they are fastened together with grain aggregates (sand, gravel and crushed stone).

One of the first bindings used by man was raw clay. In 3,000 BC people began to use more durable binders produced artificially by firing natural stone materials. The first material was probably a gypsum binder, the next one was air lime. However, due to the lack of water resistance such material didn’t fully meet the requirements of the construction. To improve the water resistance of binders volcanic ash was added to the air lime by the ancient Romans. Later, in the XVIII century, the builders discovered that by firing limestone with high content of clay a way more effective water-resistant binder can be obtained. So this is how hydraulic lime and roman cement were born. The impetus for the further development of the production and use of binders was the invention in the beginning of XIX century, a new quality of cement higher strength and water resistance, known as Portland cement.

Currently, a variety of other mineral binders which differ in their properties are used in the construction. The modern architectural companies, like a UK-based Telling, focusing on hydraulic lime and lime mortar technologies, use over 30 types of mineral binders depending on the purpose of the project and the environmental conditions.

Mineral binders are powdered substances capable, when mixed with water (sometimes with salt solutions) of forming viscoplastic mass that gradually hardens into a stone-like body. In the construction of binders mixtures with fillers to save the binder and improve some properties of artificial stone are used.

Here are the types of mixtures are based on binders:

  • Binder (e.g. gypsum) dough – a mixture of binder (gypsum) with water; hardened gypsum paste called gypsum
  • Mortar mix consisting of binder, water and sand; after solidification of the mortar mixture is formed
  • Concrete mix, which includes a binder, water, sand and crushed stone (or gravel)

Mineral binders, depending on their ability to harden (strength gain) under certain conditions is divided into air and hydraulic.

Air binders harden and preserve the strength for a long time only in the air; in water, they soak and lose their qualities quite quickly. The reason for decrease in the strength is relatively high solubility of the components of artificial stone. This group includes: gypsum and magnesia binders, liquid glass, air lime. Sometimes air binders include clay. However, this is not entirely justified, since the clay dough hardens solely through drying and does not change its chemical composition, which is typical for all hardened mineral binders.

 

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Plasma Waste Recycling Radioactive Challenges

Plasma waste processing is the newest method of disposal of solid waste, which essentially is a waste gasification. This method is the most promising among the recycling solutions, since such production does not set strict requirements to the feedstock, and yields a secondary energy in the form of hot steam or hot water to supply them to the final consumer, as well as a range of secondary products, such as granulated slag or ceramic tiles.

In fact, this is the best option for complex processing of garbage, fully environmentally friendly that produces heat and a variety of useful products from the most junky materials – household waste. With the emergence of such innovators as Simdean, the company famous for its industrial waste disposal, plasma waste disposal and research achievements, the method became more cost effective. However, it is still not a panacea.

Dealing with radioactive waste

So how is the problem of radioactive waste is going to be solved? It depends on the category, the class of such waste – low-level, intermediate-level and high-level. The simplest mission is the utilization of the first two classes. It should be noted that, depending on their chemical composition radioactive waste is divided into short-lived (from short half-life) and long-lived (long half-life). In the first case, the easiest way is the temporary storage of radioactive materials at special sites in airtight containers. After a certain period of time when disintegration of hazardous substances takes place, the remaining materials are not dangerous and can be disposed of as ordinary waste.

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The Basics Of Waterproofing

Waterproofing implies applying a thick waterproof layer to the surface of the building structures and commercial/residential facilities to ensure thorough protection from water and corrosive liquids. Waterproofing boosts efficient operation of buildings, structures and equipment, increases their reliability and useful life.

From a functional point of reference there are two types of waterproofing to be defined: anti filtration one, designed for protection against the ingress of water into the underground and underwater structures, leakages of the operating, technical or waste water; and corrosion waterproofing that aims at protecting structures from chemically aggressive liquids and water, the harmful effects of the atmosphere.

By structural features waterproofing is divided into superficial, that aims at reinforcing structure interfaces, and multi-purpose one. By the type of material used, waterproofing is divided into asphalt, mineral, metal and plastic types.

By the method of waterproofing is subdivided into:

  • Paint waterproofing (hot and cold) is performed in the form of a thin, 2 mm multilayer coating commonly bituminous and polymeric coatings and paints for corrosion and anti-capillary protection of concrete and metal structures. The method is utilised in roof coating and roof waterproofing.
  • Backlining waterproofing, where roll materials produced as multilayers (and typically comprised of 3-4 layers) with mandatory protection coating surface and the wall ties.
  • Cast waterproofing, usually produced from a hot mix of asphalt mastic and casting. The solution is applied on horizontal bases (2-3 layers with an average thickness of 20 -25mm), filled to the walls or on the walls’ formworks (30 – 50mm thickness).

The Benefits Of Anticorrosive Paints Revealed

To provide protection against corrosion of reinforced concrete and steel structures, equipment, bridges, pipelines and storage tanks, one can resort to moisture-curing polyurethane systems. The innovative products, supplied to the market by seasoned players, such as Britannia Company, specialising in mass production of roof waterproofing and roof coating materials, provide unique properties that allow applying anti-corrosion coatings in the extreme conditions:

  • High humidity, up to 99%
  • Low temperatures (up to -7°C)
  • Applying to poorly refined metal surfaces with purity level starting from St2
  • Wet concrete surfaces
  • Applying the materials to old paint layers

The benefits of one-component polyurethane

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Ultrasonic Cleaning Functionality Principles

Ultrasonic cleaning – method of cleaning the surface from solid and liquid contaminants is based on the excitation of ultrasonic frequency in the washing solution. The scientific basis for the creation and development of technology equipment ultrasonic cleaning laid in the field of acoustic cavitation conducted at the Acoustics Institute named after Academician Andreeva led by Professor Rosenberg.

Ultrasonic cleaning can replace manual labor, thereby speeding up the cleaning process, a high degree of surface smoothness virtually eliminate the use of inflammable and toxic solvents. Thus, according to Hilsonic statistics (the company is focusing its efforts on producing ultrasound equipment and ultrasonic cleaner models in particular) reports that despite the higher energy consumption and relatively high maintenance costs, its customers managed to cut down operational expenses by 18% on average.

Ultrasonic cleaning process provides its effect due to several phenomena that occur in the field of high intensity of ultrasound: acoustic cavitation, acoustic currents, radiation pressure and acoustic-capillary pressure.

Depending on the type of contamination, the predominant role is played by various purification processes. Thus, the destruction of contaminants occurs weakly interrelated, mainly under the influence of pulsating cavitation bubbles. On the edges of the film contamination pulsating bubbles, making intense vibrations, overcoming the cohesive forces of the film to the surface, penetrating the film and breaking it. Radiation pressure and acoustocapillary effect contribute to the penetration of cleaning solution in the micropores, bumps and blind channels. Acoustic flow is accelerated removal of dirt from the surface. If contamination is firmly connected to the surface, its elimination requires collapsing cavitation bubbles, creating a microshock impact to the surface.

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How It Works? Gantry Cranes

Basically gantry hoists are used to move lengthy and bulky objects and typically taken advantage of at industrial warehouses of large area or open construction sites. Gantry hoist construction is in demand in hangars and workshops of enterprises engaged in production of concrete products, freight yards. In addition, the cranes are widely used to perform a variety of cargo handling, lifting and installation works on container platforms of railway junctions. One of the most mature and seasoned overhead cranes and gantry hoist UK manufacturers is Granada Material Handling, producing the equipment at industrial scales for both local and abroad markets.

Design features

A true to type gantry crane consists of a single-girder or double-girder bridge (without brackets and one or two consoles), two metal poles and moving hoist or trolley. The construction, depending on the modification of the crane, may also include a variety of lifting devices: grab, magnetic disk, and numerous specialised units and elements.

Gantry crane is controlled from the operator’s cab or from the ground through the keypad station. You can control the crane remotely via radio control console. In standard climatic design gantry cranes can be operated in the range of -20 to + 40 ° C; the low temperature constructions operate within the range from -40 to + 40°C. Continue reading “How It Works? Gantry Cranes” »

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More Reasons To Go LED

Definitely, apart from way more moderate energy consumption appetites, there is plenty of reasons to switch to LED lighting. The article aims at educating both general public as well as business oriented individuals looking to take advantage of the brand-new technology. The benefits described in the article have been successfully turned into account by Metcraft Lighting manufacturers, a seasoned UK-based business focused on commercial led street lights production.

LED lamps were initially used only in very specific purposes (largely as indicators on the instrument panels); now LED technology and LED lighting systems have penetrated almost every market area, marching successfully throughout the globe, replacing the traditional incandescent and fluorescent lamps.

Smart lighting systems

LED technology (LED) is far superior to all other options of programmable indoors and outdoors lighting. In essence, LED lighting is ideal for use in devices that require controls light intensity (dimmers), volume sensors, timers, and so on. Unlike other light sources, the LEDs provide an ability to change the intensity of light and in addition to energy savings, help to increase the life of LEDs. Furthermore, the LEDs may operate continuously without detriment to their effectiveness and functioning.

Lighting features allow the creation of innovative models

LED lighting system (LED) provide a very directional light beam patterns and regular uniform brightness in outdoor and outdoor spaces. LEDs produce neither glare nor strobe effects. Their use offers great opportunities for innovative design to create luminaires of maximum efficiency lighting systems due to its small size and variety of forms. Furthermore, since LEDs are monochromatic light sources, they don’t give infrared or ultraviolet radiation; emitting high saturation colors they are even brighter than conventional lamps.

Instant start

Unlike fluorescent (energy saving) or sodium vapor lamps, LEDs start generating light instantly, achieving an optimum level of brightness and color temperature (even at temperatures down to -30ºC) in milliseconds. Thus, an additional benefits is a production of a shimmering effect: a nonsignificant at first sight opportunity contributed to the emergence of the entire industry of live shows lighting.

No harmful effects on the historical monuments and wildlife

Since LED lamps provide very little heat and do not emit infrared and ultraviolet rays, they can be used for lighting of historical buildings and living plants without no risk of damaging. The technology has successfully been integrated in zoo and reservations.

Environmental protection

LED lamps can be recycled quite easily, so they don’t contribute to environment pollution. Energy-saving fluorescent lamps and sodium lamps contain mercury; moreover, fluorescent lamps emit electromagnetic waves that are harmful to health when used near human (e.g. as a table lamp or lamps on the bedside tables).

In addition LED lighting manufacturing demands less copper cable due to a tiny diameter of the copper cable in the LED design (it is much smaller than the diameter of the cable of the traditional sodium or metal halide lamps). Therefore, due to copper cost reduction, significant savings can be achieved.