Mineral Binders Industrial Application & General Info

During the construction of buildings and facilities stone materials are used: bricks, stones, blocks, panels, facing tiles and many more. But to ensure the building is solid and warm these materials must be linked together into a single monolithic structure.

To do this binders are used. Binders also represent the main component of such artificial stone materials as concrete and mortar, in which they are fastened together with grain aggregates (sand, gravel and crushed stone).

One of the first bindings used by man was raw clay. In 3,000 BC people began to use more durable binders produced artificially by firing natural stone materials. The first material was probably a gypsum binder, the next one was air lime. However, due to the lack of water resistance such material didn’t fully meet the requirements of the construction. To improve the water resistance of binders volcanic ash was added to the air lime by the ancient Romans. Later, in the XVIII century, the builders discovered that by firing limestone with high content of clay a way more effective water-resistant binder can be obtained. So this is how hydraulic lime and roman cement were born. The impetus for the further development of the production and use of binders was the invention in the beginning of XIX century, a new quality of cement higher strength and water resistance, known as Portland cement.

Currently, a variety of other mineral binders which differ in their properties are used in the construction. The modern architectural companies, like a UK-based Telling, focusing on hydraulic lime and lime mortar technologies, use over 30 types of mineral binders depending on the purpose of the project and the environmental conditions.

Mineral binders are powdered substances capable, when mixed with water (sometimes with salt solutions) of forming viscoplastic mass that gradually hardens into a stone-like body. In the construction of binders mixtures with fillers to save the binder and improve some properties of artificial stone are used.

Here are the types of mixtures are based on binders:

  • Binder (e.g. gypsum) dough – a mixture of binder (gypsum) with water; hardened gypsum paste called gypsum
  • Mortar mix consisting of binder, water and sand; after solidification of the mortar mixture is formed
  • Concrete mix, which includes a binder, water, sand and crushed stone (or gravel)

Mineral binders, depending on their ability to harden (strength gain) under certain conditions is divided into air and hydraulic.

Air binders harden and preserve the strength for a long time only in the air; in water, they soak and lose their qualities quite quickly. The reason for decrease in the strength is relatively high solubility of the components of artificial stone. This group includes: gypsum and magnesia binders, liquid glass, air lime. Sometimes air binders include clay. However, this is not entirely justified, since the clay dough hardens solely through drying and does not change its chemical composition, which is typical for all hardened mineral binders.



Plasma Waste Recycling Radioactive Challenges

Plasma waste processing is the newest method of disposal of solid waste, which essentially is a waste gasification. This method is the most promising among the recycling solutions, since such production does not set strict requirements to the feedstock, and yields a secondary energy in the form of hot steam or hot water to supply them to the final consumer, as well as a range of secondary products, such as granulated slag or ceramic tiles.

In fact, this is the best option for complex processing of garbage, fully environmentally friendly that produces heat and a variety of useful products from the most junky materials – household waste. With the emergence of such innovators as Simdean, the company famous for its industrial waste disposal, plasma waste disposal and research achievements, the method became more cost effective. However, it is still not a panacea.

Dealing with radioactive waste

So how is the problem of radioactive waste is going to be solved? It depends on the category, the class of such waste – low-level, intermediate-level and high-level. The simplest mission is the utilization of the first two classes. It should be noted that, depending on their chemical composition radioactive waste is divided into short-lived (from short half-life) and long-lived (long half-life). In the first case, the easiest way is the temporary storage of radioactive materials at special sites in airtight containers. After a certain period of time when disintegration of hazardous substances takes place, the remaining materials are not dangerous and can be disposed of as ordinary waste.

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How much does it cost: link building in numbers

Skyrocket SEO company has recently released another independent study on link building.

The study involved 315 experts, among whom were representatives of search engine marketing agencies (UK legion was represented by SeoRun and HTP, a young, ambitious and successful digital marketing agency Manchester), SEOs optimizators, freelancers and owners of advancing in the network business.

Link building expenses as for 2014

The results revealed that since the previous year the results have increased significantly both in the number of companies practising link building, as well as its costs (a growth from $10,000 to $50,000 per month is reported). If in 2013, these organizations were only 11%, while in 2014 their share had risen to 37%. At the same time the percentage of companies invested more than $50,000 has risen by 9%.

In general, statistics on the expenses of the link building is as follows:

37% of companies spend on external links from $10,000 to $50,000 per month, 23% – from $5,000 to $10,000; 20% – from $1,000 to $5,000 and 20% – less than $1,000. This is about numbers. As for the percentages of link building in promotion budget distribution for, they are as follows: 40% of organizations spend 51-75% of its budget on link building, 27% of companies spend 26-50% on developing backlinks, 27% allocate 25% of the total funds on building backlinks groundwork, and 7% invest in marketing link building 76-100% budget. Continue reading “How much does it cost: link building in numbers” »

Intellectual property background concept

Intellectual Property In The Emerging World

With the development of developing economies market economy dictates its rules and brings increasing importance to such elements of the market economy as industrial property, trade names, trademarks, service marks and appellations of origin. Creating a level playing field for different types of producers, the introduction of competition rules and increasing the responsibility for its results, the need to saturate the market with goods and services to meet the needs of the population give birth to the need for legal mechanisms to ensure proper individualisation of enterprises and organisations, as well as the products they goods and services. This role is designed to be delegated to trademarks and trade names.

It should be noted that until recently, these problems received very little attention in the legislation of developing economies. The individualisation framework had no legislative regulation or regulated by hardly accessible and often obsolete regulations. In the context of the giant monopoly and domination of state ownership, on the one hand, and the lack of competition and scarcity of the commodity market, on the other hand, there was almost no need for the individualisation of manufacturers and their products. The result of such state of affairs was very limited compared to the scale of the country the number of registered individual marks protection, absence of debate about human rights on them in judicial practice, weak theoretical development of the problems associated with trade names and trademarks.

The preconditions for changes

With the transition to a market economy related to specified objects was radically changed. As you know, the market mechanism is very sensitive to the reaction of consumers to manufactured goods. Identifying unmet consumer demand for a particular product serves as a stimulus for the development of production. Available vacuum is quickly filled with goods the customers need. In these circumstances, it is important to enable the individualisation of products and services, what is equally interested in both producers and consumers. Guaranteeing the right to representation on the market under its own individual name on the designation of the goods and services provided by certain characters or names ensuring their protection in case of violations of laws creates the necessary preconditions for the implementation of this possibility.

This is where the situation gives birth to entities that serve the industry with consulting and legal implementation services. In the highly developed economies, these enterprises may be represented by privately held and governmental organisations. Even the educational institutions are interested in developing the direction – thus, e.g. the University of Manchester has launched its UMIP branch, dealing exclusively with intellectual property.


Brand name is a commercial name of the entrepreneur, is inextricably linked to her business reputation. Under this name, the entrepreneur makes transactions and other legal actions, legal responsibility and exercise their rights and duties, promotes and implements produced products, etc. Brand Name that has become popular with consumers and credibility with business partners, the entrepreneur brings not only a lot of dividends, but also earns respect in society and recognition of services. Therefore, the right of a company should be considered as an important and private non-property benefits. Using the brand name also serves as an important information function, as informs the third party data toiletries, type and organisational form of the enterprise.


The Basics Of Waterproofing

Waterproofing implies applying a thick waterproof layer to the surface of the building structures and commercial/residential facilities to ensure thorough protection from water and corrosive liquids. Waterproofing boosts efficient operation of buildings, structures and equipment, increases their reliability and useful life.

From a functional point of reference there are two types of waterproofing to be defined: anti filtration one, designed for protection against the ingress of water into the underground and underwater structures, leakages of the operating, technical or waste water; and corrosion waterproofing that aims at protecting structures from chemically aggressive liquids and water, the harmful effects of the atmosphere.

By structural features waterproofing is divided into superficial, that aims at reinforcing structure interfaces, and multi-purpose one. By the type of material used, waterproofing is divided into asphalt, mineral, metal and plastic types.

By the method of waterproofing is subdivided into:

  • Paint waterproofing (hot and cold) is performed in the form of a thin, 2 mm multilayer coating commonly bituminous and polymeric coatings and paints for corrosion and anti-capillary protection of concrete and metal structures. The method is utilised in roof coating and roof waterproofing.
  • Backlining waterproofing, where roll materials produced as multilayers (and typically comprised of 3-4 layers) with mandatory protection coating surface and the wall ties.
  • Cast waterproofing, usually produced from a hot mix of asphalt mastic and casting. The solution is applied on horizontal bases (2-3 layers with an average thickness of 20 -25mm), filled to the walls or on the walls’ formworks (30 – 50mm thickness).

The Benefits Of Anticorrosive Paints Revealed

To provide protection against corrosion of reinforced concrete and steel structures, equipment, bridges, pipelines and storage tanks, one can resort to moisture-curing polyurethane systems. The innovative products, supplied to the market by seasoned players, such as Britannia Company, specialising in mass production of roof waterproofing and roof coating materials, provide unique properties that allow applying anti-corrosion coatings in the extreme conditions:

  • High humidity, up to 99%
  • Low temperatures (up to -7°C)
  • Applying to poorly refined metal surfaces with purity level starting from St2
  • Wet concrete surfaces
  • Applying the materials to old paint layers

The benefits of one-component polyurethane

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Ultrasonic Cleaning Functionality Principles

Ultrasonic cleaning – method of cleaning the surface from solid and liquid contaminants is based on the excitation of ultrasonic frequency in the washing solution. The scientific basis for the creation and development of technology equipment ultrasonic cleaning laid in the field of acoustic cavitation conducted at the Acoustics Institute named after Academician Andreeva led by Professor Rosenberg.

Ultrasonic cleaning can replace manual labor, thereby speeding up the cleaning process, a high degree of surface smoothness virtually eliminate the use of inflammable and toxic solvents. Thus, according to Hilsonic statistics (the company is focusing its efforts on producing ultrasound equipment and ultrasonic cleaner models in particular) reports that despite the higher energy consumption and relatively high maintenance costs, its customers managed to cut down operational expenses by 18% on average.

Ultrasonic cleaning process provides its effect due to several phenomena that occur in the field of high intensity of ultrasound: acoustic cavitation, acoustic currents, radiation pressure and acoustic-capillary pressure.

Depending on the type of contamination, the predominant role is played by various purification processes. Thus, the destruction of contaminants occurs weakly interrelated, mainly under the influence of pulsating cavitation bubbles. On the edges of the film contamination pulsating bubbles, making intense vibrations, overcoming the cohesive forces of the film to the surface, penetrating the film and breaking it. Radiation pressure and acoustocapillary effect contribute to the penetration of cleaning solution in the micropores, bumps and blind channels. Acoustic flow is accelerated removal of dirt from the surface. If contamination is firmly connected to the surface, its elimination requires collapsing cavitation bubbles, creating a microshock impact to the surface.

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How It Works? Gantry Cranes

Basically gantry hoists are used to move lengthy and bulky objects and typically taken advantage of at industrial warehouses of large area or open construction sites. Gantry hoist construction is in demand in hangars and workshops of enterprises engaged in production of concrete products, freight yards. In addition, the cranes are widely used to perform a variety of cargo handling, lifting and installation works on container platforms of railway junctions. One of the most mature and seasoned overhead cranes and gantry hoist UK manufacturers is Granada Material Handling, producing the equipment at industrial scales for both local and abroad markets.

Design features

A true to type gantry crane consists of a single-girder or double-girder bridge (without brackets and one or two consoles), two metal poles and moving hoist or trolley. The construction, depending on the modification of the crane, may also include a variety of lifting devices: grab, magnetic disk, and numerous specialised units and elements.

Gantry crane is controlled from the operator’s cab or from the ground through the keypad station. You can control the crane remotely via radio control console. In standard climatic design gantry cranes can be operated in the range of -20 to + 40 ° C; the low temperature constructions operate within the range from -40 to + 40°C. Continue reading “How It Works? Gantry Cranes” »


More Reasons To Go LED

Definitely, apart from way more moderate energy consumption appetites, there is plenty of reasons to switch to LED lighting. The article aims at educating both general public as well as business oriented individuals looking to take advantage of the brand-new technology. The benefits described in the article have been successfully turned into account by Metcraft Lighting manufacturers, a seasoned UK-based business focused on commercial led street lights production.

LED lamps were initially used only in very specific purposes (largely as indicators on the instrument panels); now LED technology and LED lighting systems have penetrated almost every market area, marching successfully throughout the globe, replacing the traditional incandescent and fluorescent lamps.

Smart lighting systems

LED technology (LED) is far superior to all other options of programmable indoors and outdoors lighting. In essence, LED lighting is ideal for use in devices that require controls light intensity (dimmers), volume sensors, timers, and so on. Unlike other light sources, the LEDs provide an ability to change the intensity of light and in addition to energy savings, help to increase the life of LEDs. Furthermore, the LEDs may operate continuously without detriment to their effectiveness and functioning.

Lighting features allow the creation of innovative models

LED lighting system (LED) provide a very directional light beam patterns and regular uniform brightness in outdoor and outdoor spaces. LEDs produce neither glare nor strobe effects. Their use offers great opportunities for innovative design to create luminaires of maximum efficiency lighting systems due to its small size and variety of forms. Furthermore, since LEDs are monochromatic light sources, they don’t give infrared or ultraviolet radiation; emitting high saturation colors they are even brighter than conventional lamps.

Instant start

Unlike fluorescent (energy saving) or sodium vapor lamps, LEDs start generating light instantly, achieving an optimum level of brightness and color temperature (even at temperatures down to -30ºC) in milliseconds. Thus, an additional benefits is a production of a shimmering effect: a nonsignificant at first sight opportunity contributed to the emergence of the entire industry of live shows lighting.

No harmful effects on the historical monuments and wildlife

Since LED lamps provide very little heat and do not emit infrared and ultraviolet rays, they can be used for lighting of historical buildings and living plants without no risk of damaging. The technology has successfully been integrated in zoo and reservations.

Environmental protection

LED lamps can be recycled quite easily, so they don’t contribute to environment pollution. Energy-saving fluorescent lamps and sodium lamps contain mercury; moreover, fluorescent lamps emit electromagnetic waves that are harmful to health when used near human (e.g. as a table lamp or lamps on the bedside tables).

In addition LED lighting manufacturing demands less copper cable due to a tiny diameter of the copper cable in the LED design (it is much smaller than the diameter of the cable of the traditional sodium or metal halide lamps). Therefore, due to copper cost reduction, significant savings can be achieved.


UK Lawyers’ Industrial Action: The Causes & Outcomes

Every year UK government allocates about two billion pounds (about 3.2 billion) on legal aid; half of the amount goes to criminal cases, another half to civilian ones. The Ministry of Justice is expected to reduce the appropriation to 215 million pounds ($344 million). Under the plan, the salary of lawyers in complex and expensive affairs should be decreases by 30%, in the rest – by 18%. In criminal cases the contracts will be distributed through the tender, which is likely to be won by those offering the lowest costs. As a consequence, the defendants will not be able to choose a legal representative.

Probation legal adjustments

In the field of probation a number of changes has also been implemented. General Secretary of the National Association of Inspectors Jan Lawrence criticised the project of the Ministry. ‘The government’s plan to transfer 70% of inspection to private owners is rash and untested – he says. ‘It’s a dangerous social experiment that will lead to reductions in the area of rehabilitation and the risk of collapse of the control system, which would create a danger to society’.

Ministry of Justice plans to raise concerns and grievances and lawyers. Nicola Hill, president of the Association of London Criminal Courts Solicitors, is convinced that the desire of minister to save on legal aid system can lead to disaster. ‘The risk that the innocent may go to jail, the nightmare may become reality’, – warns Hill. ‘The number of cases of injustice in common people will increase, because the citizens won’t be able to get a decent lawyer’. Matt Foot of Justice of the Commonwealth has the same opinion: ‘Because of the cuts [appropriations], all but the rich will suffer, so we decided to unite and fight back’.

London solicitors association measures, which is the government do not seem forced. The Association believes that they cause serious damage to the criminal justice system, because qualified and experienced lawyers will leave their job, paid from the state budget, and will be looking for more profitable places. According to forecasts of the association, many law firms will quickly go to the bottom, while professionals will be replaced by less skilled employees and, accordingly, not such costly.

Among the lawyers supporting the union of human rights, defenders and civil society are such groups as Liberty, Unite, The Howard League for Penal Reform, Coram Children’s Legal Centre. A charitable organisation Children’s Society drew attention to the fact that the blow will be delivered to children, and legal aid will not be available to ‘the most vulnerable population group’ including those who suffer from domestic violence. ‘If people are not able to consult with a lawyer due to the fact that more and more law firms are closed’, says the head of the organization Gillian Guy, ‘then the catastrophic effects of innovations will affect not only those who are indicted, but the whole society’. Human rights organizations have expressed the view that the planned changes will undermine the international prestige of the entire judicial system of Great Britain.

According to “Solicitors Guru find a solicitor“, the platform aggregating hundreds of legal UK enterprises, the impact was huge, but in general companies are reconsidering their strategies and some of them succeed. Some companies despite the stagnation, e.g. Forster Dean, a prominent UK no win no fee and accident claims agency, has managed to advance despite the blow delivered to the industry, expanding its services throughout the entire country.